Male infertility affects 1 in 3 couples who have problems conceiving. If sperm retrieval is not the problem and the cause of male infertility is low sperm count, sperm donation with IVF is a recommended method of assisted reproductive technology (ART). Couples where the male partner is at risk of passing a genetically inherited disease to children may choose sperm donation with artificial insemination or to increase the chance of success, in vitro fertilization.
Couples may choose a known donor or an anonymous donor from a sperm bank. Anonymous sperm donors are screened for infection, disease and record of medical problems. Donor sperm is analyzed to ensure the sperm count is high and for high motility to ensure the chance of successful fertilization. Recipient couples can select a sperm donor to match their physical and intellectual characteristics. Sperm banks keep records of physical attributes of donors, such as hair and eye color, IQ levels, blood group, ethnicity, and personality traits to help match couples with a perfect donor.
The procedure for in vitro fertilization with sperm donation is identical to traditional IVF. Mature eggs are collected from the woman following a cycle of fertility drugs to induce ovulation. The egg is then fertilized using the donor sperm. ICSI is used in IVF treatments with sperm donation to increase the chance of successful fertilization. The donated sperm is separated from semen, washed, spun and the healthiest sperm are individually selected by fertility specialists. The sperm is injected directly into the center (cytoplasm) of the egg to ensure successful fertilization.
Risks and side effects include possible displacement of the embryos into the cervix, resulting in a lost embryo, or in the fallopian tubes, resulting in tubal (ectopic) pregnancy; multiple pregnancies. If IVF is successful, a normal pregnancy will be carried out. If IVF with sperm donation results in an unsuccessful pregnancy or no pregnancy, different methods of IVF should be considered, such asEmbryo Donor IVF or IUI Sperm Donor.